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Allele/Modifier – a variation or alternate form of a specific gene. An example of this would be the different forms of the Extension gene (E vs e)
Chromosome – DNA molecules packed into a tread-like structure. Chromosomes come in pairs and each chromosome carries many genes. Horses have 32 chromosomes. Each parent passes one from each of their pairs down to the foal.
Dominant – an allele that overpowers other versions of the gene. Represented with a capital letter. In /Ee/ the dominant /E/ version is expressed and the horse does not physically look different than a horse with /EE/
Gene – Specific information located on a chromosome that controls the appearance (among other things) of the living organism. Each gene comes in pairs – located on the pair of chromosomes.
Heterozygous – different alleles are present in the horse’s chromosomes. For example: /Ee/.
Homozygous – identical alleles are present in the horse’s chromosomes. For example: /EE/ or /ee/.
Incomplete dominant – an allele that ‘blends’ with another, causing a horse that looks different from either homozygous phenotype. The Cream dilution is a prime example of this. Horses with one cream gene look very different from horses with two genes.
Locus – the specific location/position of a gene on a chromosome.
Modifier/Allele – a variation or alternate form of a specific gene. An example of this would be the different forms of the Extension gene (E vs e)Phenotype - the physical appearance of the horse.
Recessive – an allele that is overpowered by other versions of the gene. Represented with a lowercase letter. In /Ee/ horses the recessive /e/ is not seen. Requires homozygous expression to affect the horse’s appearance /ee/.
Equine Genetics Guide - Base Colors V2These are the Base colors that occur in horses.
If you where looking for white marking genes visit the second part of this guide, Equine Genetics Guide - White Pattern Genes
The first version of this guide is Here, the guide was redone because a better way was found.
Q. What does the 'n' stand for in genetics?
A. Nothing. It stands as a placeholder so a person could see that it lacks a gene there. n = no active gene
_ means insert a gene here. If it is infront of the gene, like _A it means to choose a gene that is dominant over the gene. If it is behind the gene, like A_ it means to choose a gene recessive to the gene.
Heterozygous: Means that it only has one gene effecting that area.
Homozygous: Means that there are two of the Same gene effecting that area.
Dominant: Only one gene is need to show the full effects.
Incomplete Dominant: The effects of the gene with differ fro